Select Page
[Total: 0    Average: 0/5]

ARIZ, meaning in Russian algorithm for the resolution of inventive problems1, is the method developed by Altshuller to implement the tools of the TRIZ and guide the designer in the identification of the situation until the identification of The solution.

## Introduction

ARIZ, meaning in Russian algorithm for the resolution of inventive problems1, is the method developed by Altshuller to implement the tools of the TRIZ and guide the designer in the identification of the situation until the identification of The solution.

ARIZ is broken down by 9 steps to quickly obtain a relevant formulation of the problem with a view to its resolution by one of the tools of the TRIZ.

Note that there are different versions of the algorithm. Here we present the latest version developed by Altshuller, the ARIZ-85C.

## Step 1: Identifying the problem

The main objective of this part is to move from a blurred innovation situation to a clearly constructed and simplified model.

### Step 1.1-Simply rephrase the problem

Rephrase the problem in the following way:

The system (set) whose main function (MFS) is (define ) includes: (list The main components of the system)

Define technical Contradiction 1 (TC1), 2 (TC2) by analysing in particular what one does not want to change and what one wants to improve.

Define the result (technical, economical) to be achieved requiring the minimum system modification.

#### Example

The Radio/TV antenna system whose main function is to receive and transmit radio waves includes a telescope radio antenna, a transmitter and lightning rods.

TC1: If there are many lightning rods, then they protect the antenna effectively, but they absorb the radio waves.

TC2: If there are few lightning rods, then there is less absorption of radio waves, but the antenna is not effectively protected from lightning. Our goal is to protect the antenna from lightning without reducing the transmission quality of radio waves.

#### The rules of rewording

Rule 1: The techniquessont contradictions of the interactions in the system which consist in that:

• A useful action produces at the same time a harmful action
• The introduction/Strengthening of a useful action or the elimination/mitigation of a harmful action generates the degradation of all or part of the system

Rule 2: In some cases, one or more “illogical” technical contradictions should not be analyzed. For example the following problem: ” How to observe with the naked eye the micro-particles included in a sample of optically clean liquid. The particles are so small that the light bypasses them?»

TC1: If the particles are small, then the liquid is optically clean but it is impossible to observe the particles with the naked eye.

TC2: If the particles are large, then they are observable, but the liquid is no longer optically clean, which is an unacceptable consequence.

The problem must be resolved without considering the TC2: it is forbidden to change the product! In fact we will only consider TC1 in this problem, but TC2 will give us additional features for the product: small particles must be small but become wide.

Rule 3: All terms related to the tool and the environment should be replaced by simple words to avoid falling into the psychological inertia:

• Avoid all solutions made to the tool’s operating technology: “The icebreaker, break the ice”. But it can probably move through the ice without the need to break it…
• Avoid describing excessively the properties of the substances: instead of “iron gates” use only “barriers”
• Assume the concept on the possibilities of existence of a substance in its different states. The term “painting” reminds us of a solid or liquid substance, although it may be a gaseous paint, why not?

### Step 1.2: Isolate and note the conflicting pair of objects: the substance and the tool

Rule 4: If the tool can have two separate states, then note these two states.

Rule 5: If the problem has more than one pair of equivalent and interconnected objects, it is sufficient to specify only one of these pairs.

Taking our example of the Lightning rod:

• Substance *: Lightning and radio waves
• * Tool: Lightning rod (few lightning rods, many lightning rods)

* See definitions in the Vépole Modeling article

### 1.3 Graphically represent TC-1 and TC-2

represent the contradiction (or inconsistencies) using the following graphical representation:

Opposition

A acts on B positively (continuous line), a reverse adverse action (sinuous line) appears permanently or at certain times only.

We want to suppress the harmful action while preserving the beneficial action.

Double Action

The positive action of A on B is associated simultaneously with a negative action on B (for example, in different operating stages, the same action can be beneficial in one case and harmful in another).

It is necessary to suppress the harmful action while preserving the beneficial action.

Double Action

The action exerted by a on B is useful for a part of B (B1) and negative for another part of B (B2).

It is a matter of eliminating the harmful action exerted on a part of B (B2) while maintaining the useful action exerted on the other part of B (B1).

Double Action

We have a system formed by a, B and C in which the same action exerted by a is useful for B and harmful for C.

In this case it is a matter of eliminating the harmful action by keeping the action useful without destroying the system.

Combined Action

The beneficial action of a on B is accompanied by an internal action of a on itself (which causes some problems in a).

One needs to eliminate the negative action internal to a while maintaining the useful action of a on B.

Incompatible Action

The useful action produced by a on B is not compatible with the useful action of C on B (example: The processing is not compatible with the measure).

It is necessary to produce the action of C on B without changing the action of A on B.

Incomplete action or inaction

has produced an action on B, but two equivalent actions are required. Another situation: has produced an action on B in a discontinuous manner (from time to time).

In other cases A does not exist and you have to change B, but you do not know how to do it.

It is necessary to produce an action of a on B as simply as possible.

Silence

There is no information about a or B or the interaction between A and B. In some cases, we only know B.

It is necessary to obtain the necessary information.

A non-adjustable or surplus action in part

A acts on B in an uncontrollable manner (e.g. permanently), and it is necessary to adjust this action (e.g. control it).

It is about transforming this action into an action that can be controlled in accordance with the needs expressed.

Taking our example:

TC-1: Many lightning rods

TC-2: Few lightning Rods

Steps 1.2 and 1.3 refine the identification of the problem. Therefore, after step 1.3, it is necessary to repeat steps 1.1 and 1.2 to verify that everything is consistent. In case some inconsistencies exist, correct them.

1.4 Choose the technical contradiction to keep (TC-1 or TC-2)

One must choose the contradiction in which the main function of the system is best represented in the specific conditions of the problem.

In the problem on the protection of the radio telescope antenna, the main function of the system is the reception of radiowaves. That is why we choose TC-2: In this situation, the drivers do not absorb the radio waves.

Remarks:

When we choose one of the two diagrams, we also choose one of the two States of the tool. Any solution envisaged must be associated with this state. For example, it is not possible to change “few drivers” toOptimum quantity“. ARIZ requires intensification and not mitigation of conflict.

1.5 Intensification of the technical contradiction chosen

Indicate the state (or actions) limit of the conflicting elements: the majority of conflicts are in the Shape of “many elements” vs. “few elements” (“strong elements” vs. “weak elements”, etc.). For example, a situation of the type “few elements” must be intensified by carrying the value to the extreme, “zero element” (“Missing Elements”).

Taking our example, we will not consider “few drivers” but “absent driver”.

### 1.6 Formulating a problem model

• The conflicting pair: The absent lightning rod and the
• The Expression ofu conflict intensified: The absent conductor does not cause interference during reception of radio waves by the antenna, but does not provide lightning protection.
• What should be the role element X that will be introduced? (What to preserve and what to remove, what to improve, etc.) : It is necessary to introduce an element X, such that the system retains the characteristics of the absent conductor (do not cause interference) and also allows to obtain the protection of the antenna.

After this step, take step 1.1 and check the logic of the problem model. In this way, the pattern of the chosen conflict is also redefined, by integrating the element X, for example, in the following way:

Element X is not necessarily an integral part of the system. This element X changes the system to some extent, and can create, for example, a change in temperature or a change in the aggregate state of a part of the system or ambient environment, etc.

### 1.7 Verify the possibility of applying the standards * for the resolution of the problem model

If the latter is not resolved, we must proceed to the next step of the analysis. If the problem is solved, it is possible to proceed directly to the seventh stage of ARIZ, although it is recommended to continue the analysis of the second part of ARIZ.

* See the article on Vépole modeling

## Step 2: System Description and resource identification

The purpose of the second part of ARIZ is to analyze all the resources that can be used to solve the problem (substances, fields, time, space,…).

### 2.1 Determine the operating area

Make a descriptive of the operating area and make a diagram in several views/projections of the operating area.

In the problem of the antenna, the operating area is the space previously occupied by the Lightning rod.

### 2.2 Determining the operating time

The operating time corresponds to the available temporal resources:

• T1: Time before the conflict
• T2: Time during the conflict
• T3: Time after conflict

In our example, the operating time is the sum of T1a (the moment when the Lightning Falls) and T1b (the time to the next flash). T2, in this case, does not exist.

### 2.3 Determining Vépole resources (substance/fields) by observing the system and its environment

The resources are the substances and fields already existing or that can be easily obtained by the conditions of the problem. There are three different types of resources:

• The resources of the tool.
• The resources of the immediate environment of the operating area or common to any other environment (air, gravity, Earth’s magnetic field…)
• Super-system resources: waste, sub-substance, secondary resources
• The resources of the substance

It is best to get results using as few resources as possible. Therefore we first use the internal resources, then the external resources and ultimately those of the super system.

Because the substance is known, it is an invariable element. But it is not possible to consider the following possibilities:

• It can be changed by itself.
• She wears out.
• Transfer the modification of the substance to the level of the super-system (for example, do not modify the brick, but modify the house).
• Use micro-level structures.
• Perform a hybridization with “vacuum”, “nothing”.
• Consider temporary changes.

In the antenna problem, the term “missing lightning rod” was highlighted. As a result, this problem is only for substances and fields in the environment. In this case the LICOs are reduced to The air.

## Step 3: Definition of RIF and formulation of contradictions

The application of the third part of ARIZ must lead to a vision of the ideal end result (FIR). It also allows to highlight the physical contradictions (CP), preventing the obtaining of the FIR. The ideal end result is not always achieved, however it indicates the path to the ideal solution.

### 3.1 Formulating the ideal end result FIR1

ElementX, without complicating the system and without showing harmful actions, resolves to indicate the harmful actionduring operating timewithin the limits of the operating areaand it retains the possibility for the substance to make indicate the beneficial action.

In our example:

The element X, without complicating the system and without showing harmful actions, solves, during the operative time (TO: T1a + T1b), the “Non attraction” of lightnings with the absence of a lightning rod, and in this way preserves the characteristic of Lightning rod not to cause disturbance during reception of radio waves by the antenna.

### 3.2 Strengthen the formulation of the FIR1 with additional stress

Reinforce the formulation of the FIR1 with an additional constraint: No new substances or new fields should be added to the system. Only the resources highlighted in step 2.3 should be used.

In the problem of antenna protection, there is no tool (since “absent driver” has been formulated). For the resolution of the mini-problem, the resources highlighted in the following order must be used:

1. Tool Resources
2. Environmental Resources
3. Super-system resources
4. Substance Resources

The existence of different resource types implies the existence of four possible paths for the continuation of the analysis. Generally, the limitations of the problem can reduce the number of possible paths.

During the learning of ARIZ, this analysis is performed sequentially. With experience, it is gradually replaced by a cross-sectional analysis to verify the possibility of applying the concepts of solutions to all the paths identified. This type of analysis is called “multi-screen thinking”: It leads to a simultaneous vision of the changes in the super-system, in the system and in the subsystems.

### 3.3 Writing the formulation of physical contradictions to the macro level

The objective is to reformulate the problem into a high-level physical contradiction, allowing us to begin to see a solution path:

The operating area, during the operating time, must be (indicate the macroscopic state, for example “must be Cold”), to perform (indicate one of the actions in conflict),
ETne must not be (indicate the opposite macroscopic state, for example “must not be hot”), to perform (indicate the other action in conflict).

Taking our example: The air column, during the operating time, must be electrically conductive, to deflect the lightning from the antenna, and must be non-conductive electrically, in order not to absorb the radio waves.
This type of formulation leads to the following answer: The air column must be electrically conductive during lightning and should not be the rest of the time. Lightning is a relatively rare event, and also relatively instantaneous. According to the law of coordination of Rhythm: the electrical conductivity of the conductor must be given to the appearance of lightning…

This, of course, does not provide a complete answer. How do you make the air column turn into a conductor when lightning strikes? How can this conduction disappear instantly after lightning?

### 3.4 Writing the formulation of physical contradictions to the micro-level

Then go back down to the micro-level and rephrase the previous contradiction in the following way:

In the operating area, there must be particles of substance such as (indicate its physical states or actions), to provide (indicate the macroscopic state formulated in step 3.3), and there shall be no particles such as (or there must be Particles with opposite states or actions), to provide (indicate the opposite macroscopic state formulated in step 3.3).

Taking our example: The air column, (at the time of lightning) there must be free loads, in order to provide electrical conductivity (in order to lead the Lightning) and there must be no free loads (the remainder of the time), in order to avoid the electrical conductivity (which absorb Radio waves).

### 3.5 Formulating the ideal end result FIR2

The first three parts of ARIZ reformulate the initial problem to the lowest level. By reformulating the FIR1, in the manner described below, we get FIR2 which precisely describes the problem to be solved.

The operating area (indicate) during the operative time (indicate) must automatically provide (indicate the opposite macro states and the opposing micro physical states).

Taking our example: The neutral molecules in the air column must, alone, turn into free loads by the action of lightning. After that, the free loads must automatically turn into neutral molecules.

### 3.6 Apply the standards to the physical resolution of the problem, expressed in the Shape of the FIR2

If the problem is not resolved, we must proceed to the next part of ARIZ.
If the problem is already solved, it is possible to continue with the seventh part of ARIZ, although in this case it is recommended to continue the analysis with the fourth part of ARIZ.

## Step 4: Definition and application of resources

In step 2.3, we defined the resources that can be used. The fourth part of ARIZ is to apply a series of operations to increase the number of available resources: it then appears secondary resources, obtained without significant additional cost through small changes in resources Initial.

On the other hand, during steps 3.3 to 3.5, we initiated the transition from the problem to a solution, based on physical concepts; The fourth part of ARIZ continues on this path.

The following rules apply for all stages of the fourth part of ARIZ:

Rule 6: Each type of particle, located in a given physical state, must perform a single function. If particle A cannot perform both functions 1 and 2, it is necessary to introduce particles B; In this way particles A perform function 1 and particles B, as for them, provide function 2.

Rule 7: The introduced B-particles may, in turn, be subdivided into two groups: B-1 and B-2. This allows the use of existing interactions between particles B “without additional cost” in order to obtain a new action 3.

Rule 8: It is sometimes interesting to divide the particles into several groups. Consider the case where the system must have only one type of particle a: In one group, the a particles retain their initial state, while in the other group their main parameter is modified in order to perform the required function.

Rule 9: Once the function has been carried out, the particles divided or introduced must not be differentiated between them or with respect to the particles initially present.

### 4.1 Modeling Men Miniatures (MHM)

1. A) apply the Miniature men method to construct the conflict scheme on the modifiable parts of the problem model (as are, for example, the tool and the X element).
2. B. Modify this pattern so that small men act without new conflicts.
3. C. Transform it into a technical drawing

Taking our example:

A) miniature men, lying in the imaginary conductor, are no different from those outside the driver. The two groups of miniature men are neutral to the lightning (in the diagram, one can see that the miniature men hold hands, implying that they can not lead the Lightning).

B) According to Rule 8, miniature men are separated into two groups: miniature men, outside the driver, remain unchanged (neutral pairs), and miniature men in the driver remain together (while being neutral), but tend their Arms, symbolizing their desire to attract lightning.

(This is not the only Shape of representation for this example. It is however necessary to use the separation of miniature men into two groups and change their condition when they are in the driver).

C. The air molecules (in the driver) must balance their loads to maintain their neutrality. In addition, they must easily switch to an ionized state. This can be easily achieved by decreasing the air pressure in the driver.

### 4.2 Alteration of the ideal end result (FIR)

If the problem data indicates the way in which the final outcome (the solution) is to be made, the approach is to find a way to achieve it. One can then use the method “of alteration of the ideal end result”. We first represent this final result and then modify this pattern by altering the FIR by the minimum defect.

Taking our example

If the ideal end result (FIR) is that two objects are in contact, the minimum defect would be, for example, to introduce a game between these objects. It now appears a new problem (micro problem): How to solve the generated defect? The solution of this micro problem will not be too difficult and in the best case, and as a general rule, it would indicate the way to solve the general problem.

### 4.3 Mix of resources

Determine if the problem can be solved by mixing resources.

If, in order to achieve the solution, it is possible to use only the available substances (in their initial state), it is likely that no secondary problems appear or that the solution is automatic. However, it is generally necessary to introduce new resources. Introducing them, the system becomes more complicated and there are adverse side effects. The guiding idea of resource mobilization in the fourth part of ARIZ is to circumvent this difficulty and introduce new resources, without really introducing them.

Step 4.3 consists (in simple cases) of replacing two homogeneous substances with a heterogeneous bi-substance.

This is a transformation similar to that already known from a system to a bi-poly system (corresponding to standard 3.1.1).

### 4.4 Exchange existing resources with vacuum, or mix them with vacuum to create the bi-poly system

Determine if the problem can be resolved by swapping existing resources with a vacuum, or by mixing them with a vacuum. Emptiness is a resource of vital importance. It is always found in unlimited quantities, it is economical and it is easily mixed with the substances present, forming porous structures, bubbles, foam, etc. Emptiness is not necessarily a vacuum. If the resource is rigid or solid, a vacuum in it can be filled with liquid or gas. If the resource is liquid, the vacuum can be a gas bubble.

Taking our example: we mix our resources (air) with emptiness. This gives us air at low pressure. Thanks to physics classes, it is known that when the pressure of a gas decreases, the voltage required for an electric shock to occur, also decreases. Now the solution to the antenna problem is almost found: it is proposed to make a transparent lightning rod to the radio waves, from a “Hermetic dielectric tube”, with the pressure of the air in the tube chosen so that the field Electric Flash generates the smallest gas discharge gradient
During a thunderstorm, the rarefied gas in the “dielectric tube” becomes ionized. The ionized air in the tube will lead the electric current to the ground. After the storm, the ions recombine, and the gas returns to the neutral state.

### 4.5 Application of derived substances

Determine if the problem can be solved by using derived resources or by using a mixture of these derived substances with the “vacuum”.

Derived resources are obtained by changing the aggregation state of the resources that were initially present. If, for example, the resource is a liquid, the derived resources are steam and ice. are also considered as derived resources, the products of decomposition of the initial resources. Therefore, for water, derived resources can be oxygen and hydrogen. On the other hand, the substances, appearing during the combustion of the initial resources, are also derived resources.

The substance is in itself a hierarchically distributed multilevel system. This hierarchy, for a more practical aspect, can be represented in the following way:

• Simple Substance (example: iron).
• “Supramolecular Structures”: crystalline networks, polymers, molecular associations.
• Complex molecules.
• Molecules.
• Parts of molecules, groups of atoms.
• Parts of atoms.
• Simple particles.

Rule 10 : If, in order to solve the problem, particles of substances (e.g. ions) are needed, but they cannot be obtained because of the limitations of the problem, the required particles can be obtained by breaking particles or substances of a Higher structural level (e.g. molecules). The main idea is to get the new substance by breaking structures larger than the resources already present or the substances that can be introduced into the system.

Rule 11 : If the resolution of the problem requires particles of substance (e.g. molecules), but that their direct obtaining is impossible and that rule 10 is not applicable, then they must be obtained by supplementing or by gathering particles of level Structure (e.g. ions).

It indicates that another path is possible-the construction of larger structures.

Rule 12 : When you apply Rule 10, the easiest way to do that is to start breaking down the just higher structural level substance. When you apply Rule 11, the easiest way is to start completing the just lower structural level substance.

It indicates that it is easier to destroy “complete particles” (molecules and atoms), because fractional particles (such as ions) are already partially destroyed and resist further destruction. On the other hand, it is simpler to rebuild incomplete particles that tend to recompose themselves.

### 4.6 Introduction of an electric field instead of a substance or Interaction of two electric fields

Determine if the problem can be solved by introducing an electric field instead of a substance or by the interaction of two electric fields.

If the use of resources, both initial resources and derivatives, is not possible because of the limitations of the problem, electrons can be used in motion (current) or without movement. Electrons are “a substance”, which is always found in the object from which the conflict originated. By combining this substance with an electric field, it helps to control it better.

The method of bending tubes by winding (A C. N 182671) consists of crushing the tube mechanically, causing its distortion and winding. It is also possible to cause the tube to coil by means of dynamic forces (A C. N 342759).

### 4.7 Apply a field-activated substance

Determine if the problem can be solved by using a “substance-field” torque, in which the substance can be controlled by the field (e.g. electric/magnetic fields-ferromagnetic substance; ultraviolet radiation-phosphor; field Thermal-metal with memory of Shape, etc.).

## Step 5: Using the Knowledge database

The purpose of this fifth part of ARIZ, to be used only if the solution has not yet been found, is to use the databases, and therefore allows, as a result, to obtain a solution directly.

### 5.1 Application of standards on FIR2

Use the standards to solve the problem using the FIR2 formulation.

In practice, the use of standards begins with steps 4.6 and 4.7. Prior to these steps, the main idea was to use existing resources, avoiding the use of new substances and fields if possible.

If the problem cannot be solved with existing resources and with their derivatives, then new substances and fields must be introduced. It should be noted that the majority of standards offer techniques for the introduction of this type of element.

### 5.2 Analogies to non-standard problems, previously solved by ARIZ

Check the possibility of solving the problem by using analogies with the problems previously solved with ARIZ.

In view of the almost infinite diversity of inventive problems, the number of physical contradictions that can be used to formulate these problems is not so important. As a result, most problems can be solved by analogy to other problems that contain similar physical contradictions. Even if the formulation of these problems seems different, it can be identical to the level of physical contradictions.

### 5.3 Delete the physical contradiction

Examine the possibility of suppressing the physical contradiction using the table “Resolution of physical contradictions”.

### 5.4 Use of “physical effects”

Check the possibility of eliminating physical contradictions by using “physical phenomena or effects”. It will be necessary to use a database describing the physical phenomena and effects classified according to the functions performed.

## Step 6: changing and/or replacing the problem

Most of the time, simple problems are solved by using, for example, the principles of separation in space or time of physical contradictions. However, solving problems of a greater level of difficulty goes through the modification of the very idea that one makes it: by removing its initial limitations, the psychological inertia and the solutions all made or obvious. For example, the increase in the speed of an “icebreaker” is achieved by introducing the term “do not break the ice”. The term “painting” reminds us of a liquid or solid substance, although it may be a gaseous paint obtained by electrolysis. To solve a problem, it is first necessary to understand it correctly. In general, inventive problems are not always initially formulated in a correct manner. The process of solving a problem is, in essence, a process of correcting the formulation of the problem.

### 6.1 If the physical problem is resolved, move from the physical response to the technical response.

Formulate the medium (s) to be used to produce the solution and make the design pattern that corresponds to this method.

### 6.2 Take Step 1.1

If the solution has not yet been obtained, check that the wording of the problem in step 1.1 does not result from a combination of several problems. In this case, the problem must be modified (step 1.1), indicating the various problems to be resolved successively.

Example: “How to weld links to other links of a gold chain, if the weight of one metre of this chain is only 1 gram?”. It is necessary to find a method that allows to weld tens and hundreds of meters of this chain.

The resolution procedure is as follows: The problem exposed is first separated into several under problems:

• How to introduce micro-doses of welding in the inter-link games?
• How to produce the heat necessary to melt the micro-doses of solder without damaging the entire chain?
• How to eliminate the soldering, if it exists?

In this case, the main problem is the introduction of micro-doses of welding in the inter-link games.

### 6.3 Choose the other technical contradiction in step 1.4

If the solution is not obtained, it is necessary to modify the problem, choosing the other technical contradiction that we did not take in step 1.4. In the majority of cases (especially in the case of measurement and detection problems), the selection of the other technical contradiction leads to the rejection of the improvement of the measuring system to the benefit of an overall modification of the system. Thus, the need to achieve a measurement disappears (standard 4.1.1).

Example: the resolution of the problem of sequential transport of two petroleum-derived products by an oil pipeline. If a fluid separator compatible with both liquids or directly without separator fluid is used for this transport, the solution to the problem is to find a method to control the composition of the interface between the two products Oil.

This measurement problem has been modified as follows: “How do you avoid mixing different petroleum products without using a separator fluid?”.

Solution : The two liquids mix without control, but at the point of arrival, the mixed products pass into a distillation unit (separation via a phase change (vapour) of one of the two components) (see: G Altshuller; The Invention algorithm. 2nd-ed. Pages. 207-209, 270-271).

### 6.4 Reformulate the Mini problem (step 1.1)

If the solution is not obtained, return to step 1.1 and rephrase the mini-problem, repositioning it at the super-system level. It is possible to perform this operation several times (repositioning at the super-super-system, etc.).

Example : Problem solving on the self-contained thermo-protective gas scuba (see: Altshuller G; The Invention Algorithm; Second Edition 1973, pages 105-110).

Initially it was proposed to solve a problem on the creation of a refrigerating combination. But it is physically impossible to reduce the weight needed to supply oxygen.

It is therefore necessary to solve the problem by placing itself at the level of the super-system. The thermo-protective gas suit has been created which simultaneously performs the functions of refrigerant combination and respiratory system. This suit works with liquid oxygen, which evaporates first and is then warmed, providing thermal insulation. This oxygen is then used for breathing.

## Step 7: Analysis of the method of eliminating the physical contradiction

The purpose of the seventh part of ARIZ is to verify the quality of the answers obtained. The physical contradiction must be suppressed in an almost ideal way (i.e. without anything). It is better to spend 2 or 3 hours more to find a better answer than to fight with the introduction of a weak solution.

### 7.1 Control of the solution

Examine the substances and the fields introduced. Have you solved the problem without any additional substances or fields that have not been identified in the resource analysis of Part 2 (“Resource Analysis”)?

If not:

• Try “Modified resources” (this could be a combination of two resources, or a different phase of a resource)
• Present a “self-regulating” substance: These are substances, the physical parameters of which adapt according to the external conditions. For example: loss of the magnetic qualities of a material that exceeds the temperature characteristic of its Curie point. The use of self-regulated substances allows to change the state of the system or allows it to produce itself a measure without additional system.

### 7.2 Preliminary assessment of the solution obtained

The resulting solution manages to accomplish the main function described by the ideal end result FIR1.

What physical contradiction has been removed with this solution?

Does the resulting system contain at least one well-controlled element? What is it? How do you control it?

If you cannot use the solution obtained for the entire system, can you at least use this solution for part of the system or on a running cycle of this system?

If the resulting solution does not meet at least one of the above questions, you must return to step 1.1.

### 7.3 Formal verification of innovation

To verify (as for a patent) the formal innovation of the response obtained.

### 7.4 List the sub-problems

Which sub-problems appear with the technical design of the solution obtained? Note the possible problems (inventive, design, calculations and organizational).

## Step 8: Enforcement of the solution obtained

A good solution not only solves a specific problem, but also provides a key for solving similar problems. Therefore, the eighth part of ARIZ is intended to maximize the use of the solution obtained.

### 8.1 Changes to the super-system

In this first step of the eighth part of ARIZ, it is necessary to determine the changes/modifications to be achieved at the level of the Supersystem (including the system studied).

### 8.2 Identification of other cases of application

It is necessary to identify the other possible uses of the solution studied (or the super-system). The reverse analysis can be used for this. It may be interesting to develop a profit maximization approach.

### 8.3 Maximum use of the solution obtained

Use of the solution obtained for the resolution of other technical problems.

To express in a general way the principle of resolution used.

Examine the possibilities of direct use of this principle for the resolution of other problems.

Consider also the possibilities of using the inverse principle to that obtained.

Make a multi screen approach, for example type: “Arrangement of components-aggregate states of the tool” or “use of fields-aggregate states of the external medium”. We then have to look at the possible rebuildings of the response according to the positions of this table.

Analyze changes in the principle of resolution by changing the dimensions of the system (or its main components):

• When its dimensions tend to zero
• When its dimensions tend to infinity

## Step 9: Analysis of the steps of the resolution

Each problem solved by ARIZ must increase the researcher’s inventive potential. But to do this, it is necessary to carefully analyse the paths borrowed to produce the definitive solution, which is the objective of the ninth part of ARIZ.

### 9.1 Verification of the method used

This step is to compare the actual method borrowed to solve the problem with the theoretical method (ARIZ). If there are differences, write them down.

### 9.2 TRIZ Database Compliance

This step is to compare the general principle used to solve the problem with TRIZ databases (i.e. standards, methods and physical effects). If this principle does not exist in the TRIZ databases, note it.