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Any project manager must know the team typologies and know how the manager.

Introduction

A team is a group of people who work together to achieve a common goal. The drawings below illustrate the team concept :

Types of teams

We find 4 types of team :

Work team

It is a permanent team whose responsibility is to deliver a work vis-à-vis the needs of other services to produce the products or services sold by the company.

Reflection team

It consists of members from different units. Its challenge is to reflect on the current organization and provide recommendations for possible improvements. Its lifetime is most often the time to provide these recommendations. This type of team is found under various names such as “ circles qualities “, “ team-advice“…

Equipe de management

Also called the Management Committee, it is the group of people who are responsible for each of the company. Its role is to define the objectives of the company and coordinate all units vis-à-vis these objectives.

Project team

By nature, the project team has a limited lifespan, and performs non-routine tasks requiring the pooling of multiple skills. Members are part of several entities and are involved full or part time on this project. We can find this type of team under various names : “Problem solving team”, “Task Force”, “Steering Comitee”…

 

Project team

Reflection team

Management team

Work team

multifunctional

X

X

X

 Often

Permed

 No

No

X

X

Full time member in the team

Sometimes

Sometimes

 X

X

One hierarchical leader

 No

Sometimes

X

X

Performance factors

The composition of the team

The composition must be related to the purpose of the project. For example, the diversity and heterogeneity of members promotes innovation and problem solving. We will also take into account the number of people as well as the “social” competence of the members to ensure good agreement.

Regarding the number, we will retain :

  • The team must be large enough to distribute the tasks without any members being overwhelmed.
  • The team must be small enough so that meetings and communications can be effective.

Work organization

Autonomy has now been shown to promote the participation and motivation of team 1 members. Interdependence (communication within the team), will facilitate cooperation and the faculty of learning2. On the other hand, the organization of the team implies compliance with the rules of operation : schedule, presence…

Clarity of the mission

Clarity in the mission of each and the team’s objectives will help to reinforce the involvement. Note that the objective must be clear, whereas the means can be left to the appreciation of the team3.

The organizational context

This is all the elements to support the project and allow the team to work. It includes computer systems, budget, equipment, compensation system … Some authors note in this regard that a collective remuneration allows team members to work more collaboratively4.

The steering and feedback system

Putting in place a team performance indicator is an important performance factor. Feedback and asking the team to participate helps to put in place a system of continuous improvement. It is noted that this system is integrated in the project management SCRUM via la SCRUM Review Retrospective.

The role of project manager

It is he who selects the team, clarifies the responsibilities and by his leadership installs a positive dynamic. It also plays an important role in breaking down barriers and obtaining the necessary resources. In his role, we can advise him to :

  • Assign appropriate tasks : The team leader should ask to perform tasks that are in the comfort zone while being stimulating for the person. Note that what is nice for one person is not good for everyone.
  • Building skills : Most people have a need to feel competent in what they do. Pushing them to learn and learn will enable them to meet this need while increasing the overall skill of the team.
  • Express gratitude : People need to feel recognized and comfortable in their work. Recognizing them individually throughout the project is a good way to Provoke Motivation.
  • CAssign appropriate tasks : The team leader should be asked to perform tasks that are in the comfort zone while being stimulating for the person. Note that what is nice for one person is not good for everyone.
  • Building skills: Most people have a need to feel competent in what they do. Pushing them to learn and learn how to meet the needs of the team.
  • Express gratitude : People need to be recognized and comfortable in their work. Recognizing them in the project is a good way to.

Knowing how to manage a conflict

 

In the life of the company, a team leader will have to deal with many conflicts. We recognize various ways to treat them5.

    • Avoidance : it is hoped that the problem will go away on its own. This style is effective if the moment, the place … are such that it is inappropriate to continue the exchange.
    • Accommodation : we respond to the need of the other without meeting our own needs, we give in. 
    • The competition : It uses its power to assert its needs. It will only be used when there is a need that is important or better than others. 
    • The collaboration / Compromise : We are looking for a solution that meets the expectations of both parties. We will create a winning solution for everyone. It is most often this method which is recommended.


Knowing how to manage a conflict

In the life of the company, a team leader will have to deal with many conflicts. We recognize various ways to treat them5.

    • Avoidance : it is hoped that the problem will go away on its own. This style is effective if the moment, the place … are such that it is inappropriate to continue the exchange.
    • Accommodation : we respond to the need of the other without meeting our own needs, we give in.
    • The competition : It uses its power to assert its needs. It will only be used when there is a need that is important or better than others.
    • The collaboration / Compromise : We are looking for a solution that meets the expectations of both parties. We will create a winning solution for everyone. It is most often this method which is recommended

6 steps to manage a conflict

   1 – Frame the conflict and explain the basic rules of a conflict

  • Conflicts are the result of healthy diversity.
  • Well managed, it will allow us to develop a positive future.
  • Listening to each other is important.

   2 – Analyze the conflict

  • Focus the conversation on the conflict. Face the problem face.
  • Ask people to tell their version.

   3 – Helping people to seek a common goal

  • Objective on the job.
  • Objective on the relational.

   4 – Identify the path to reach the goals

  • Focus on a strategy win-win.
  • Use brainstorming.

   5 – Choosing the best path

  • Make sure the chosen strategy is fair.
  • Build the action plan.
  • Quickly set up the first action, even small.

   6 – Debrief

  • Encourage them to think about what happened.
  • Push them to share their feelings.

Relationships in the team

Team spirit must reign in her within. There must be mutual trust between members but also confidence in the success of the project. This conviction will strengthen motivation.

The stages of team development

Before reaching optimal functioning, a team goes through a number of phases. It was in 1965 that Bruce Tuckman, American psycho-sociologist, developed a model6.

1 – Forming

This is the moment when the team is formed. At this moment, the members are :

  • Enthusiastic.
  • Have positive expectations.
  • Feel a little anxiety about what’s going to happen.

Productivity is logically low. The members do not know each other yet, they focus on the work to be done, the context … the duration of the step depends on the level of complexity of the tasks. The more complex or unclear, the more members will spend time appropriating the work.
This is an important step because it will clarify the team, their roles … it is necessary that the manager can take the time to accompany the people.

2 – Insatisfaction (Storming)

This stage is the resultant between the initial expectations and the reality perceived by the members. This is therefore the direct result of the previous step. It is also at this moment that the first differences of personalities are felt, generating conflicts, a decrease of motivation … that the manager will have to manage.

3 – Norming

As conflicts and dissatisfactions are resolved, the roles and responsibilities of each are now clearer. The team is focused on the work to be done and the goals to be achieved. Members begin to formally or informally establish a code of conduct, common values … and a sense of cohesion, respect and trust sets in.

The group becomes a real team, productivity improves.

4 – Performing

The team is now in its cruising rhythm. Members work in harmony and effectively. Communication is easy, frank and enthusiastic. Now differences of opinion are encouraged because treated with respect and without conflict.

End

For time teams, this step is the last. Depending on the course of the first 4 steps, it can be a sad moment or a relief. For the manager, it is important to take the time to recognize the work done and to bring back experiences.

Roles in a team

A role is our tendency to interact with others in a particular way. The doctor Belbin7 identified 9 roles that we detail below. Their roles are based on our personality, our values … For each of these roles, the team leader will have to adapt and know the “ use ” wisely :

Name

Description

Point of vigilance

Designer

They tend to be creative and quite talented in situations “abnormal“.

Unorthodox and often distracted.

auctioneer

They are thoughtful people with a logical approach to events.

Sometimes too critical to see slow

Coordinator

Helps the team focus on goals, engage members and delegate work.

Too little delegate to reduce his work.

developer

They provide in-depth knowledge of the opposition and ensure that ideas can be translated.

Risk of neglecting the follow-up.

Organizer

Plan strategies for effective implementation.

Can not resist his schedule and hang on to his schedule.

perfecter

They are more effective at the end of the task. They fine-tune work, look for mistakes…

Can be perceived as complex people.

Support

They help to weld the team using their versatility to identify the work and accomplish it on behalf of the group.

Can be undecided when making unpopular decisions.

propellant

Push others to action and provide the necessary dynamism.

Risk of becoming aggressive in his desire to achieve results.

Expert

He is the recognized specialist in his field of expertise and he helps others.

Tend to take care of your own domain.

 

Source

1 – S. G. Cohen, D. E. Bailey (1997) – What makes teams work : group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite

2 – R. Wageman (1995) – Interdependence and group effectiveness

3 – R. Wageman (1997) – Critical success factors for creating superb self-managing teams

4 – T. W. Scott, P. Tiessen (1999) – Performance measurement and managerial team

5 – P. B. Kestner, L. Ray (2009) – The conflict resolution training program

6 – B. Tuckman (1965) – Developmental sequence in small groups

7 – M. Belkin (2006) – Les rôles en équipe

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