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The Total Productive Maintenance is a process that aims to improve maintenance processes and activities.


The TPM means Total Productive Maintenance. It is defined by the JIPM1 : “It is a way to create a corporate culture that continually continues to improve the efficiency of the production system. It established A system to prevent all kinds of problems and looking for the 0 defect, 0 problem, 0 sinister. “ 

Other acronyms2 :

  • TPR : Total Process Reliabilty
  • TPM : Total Productive Manufacturing
  • CAM : Capacity Assurance Management

History of the TPM

before the years 50 3 : In these years, we were talking about maintenance ” REACTIVE “. The challenge is not to increase the Reliability Or to understand the cause of the failures, but to reduce the total time of the breakdown by increasing the responsiveness of the parts change.

Years 50 4 : We are in the era of preventive maintenance, created in the United States and then introduced in Japan. To achieve the objectives of stock reduction and demand increase, the equipment had to offer their full capacity5. At this time, at Toyota, for short periods of three to four days, the members of the TPM teams are dedicated to repair or maintenance tasks. Moreover, over a period of six months, these specialists pass through different fields (ventilation, air conditioning, heating, etc.), which allows a diversification of expertise when a need arises.

1961 : The JMA (Japan Management Association) established the Plant Maintenance Department.

1964: Creation of the PM Prize by the JMA

1969 : The JMA is dissolved and replaced by the Japan Institute of Plant Engineers (JIPE).

1971 : The JIPE integrated the term “ Total ” to highlight the fact that it is a global approach or all employees must participate. The TPM was born and the company Denso won the prize. At that time, the JIP described the TPM as follows:
The TPM is designed to maximize the efficiency of the equipment by establishing an understandable maintenance system, covering the entire life of the equipment, overlapping all the elements related to the equipment (planning, use, maintenance… ) and with the participation of all the employees of the top management in the operational, to promote the performance of the maintenance through the motivation of the management or voluntary working Group. 6

1981 : The Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) is created with the approval of the Minister of Industry

1988 : S. NAKAJIMA, the founding father of the TPM while he was vice-president of JIPE in the years 70, sets up a 12-step model for the deployment of the TPM.


Because the TPM is a global approach, the objectives aim to improve the OEE. They are numerous and transverses to the company:

  • Building a culture to improve the efficiency of the production system
  • Reduce the firefighter effect by setting up a predictive rather than curative maintenance.
  • Lower maintenance costs
  • Ensure the permanent availability of the machines in an optimum state of use.
  • Improve safety, quality and environment
  • Develop the involvement, autonomy and skills of the operators.
  • Improve and standardize the design of the means of production.
  • Remove the machine hazards.
  • Increase the life of the machines.

The 8 pillars of the TPM

In 1989, the JIPM redefined what is today still the ” Standard » TPM, 8 system deployment pillars. They are grouped into 2 families8 :

Pillar 1: Focused improvements – Kaizen Kobetsu

The JIPM has integrated into the TPM system the same principle of Kaizen, the improvement by small step. By the biai of action of progress, the challenge is to eliminate root causes of problems to avoid losses.

Pillar 2: Autonomous Maintenance – Jishu Hozen

The first pillar aims to increase the Autonomy of the personnel with regard to the maintenance of the equipment. This pillar really characterizes the term ” Total ” established in 1971. The operations are trained in routine maintenance maintenance such as cleaning or inspection.

Pillar 3: Planned Maintenance

The Planned maintenance aims to eliminate curative, costly, risky and stress-generating maintenance. It implements the tools of preventive or conditional maintenance and to ” predict ” failures to avoid them.

Pillar 4: Improving knowledge and know-how

Maintenance is a complex job that requires a lot of knowledge. The sharing, training and structuring of knowledge are essential to ensure the maintenance of a complete machine park and the ” Mobility ” of the teams.

Pillar 5: Mastery of product and equipment design

During the life of the equipment, design improvements are detected as for example linked to the accessibility of subsets, to the ” bad ” sizing of certain parts, or even to the standardization of the tools for the Dismantling. These feedbacks must go back as soon as the new machines are designed.

Pillar 6: Mastery of Quality

In the mindset of the TPM, the Quality is an integral part in researching the efficiency of the equipment. We need to try to systematically eliminate root causes and solve quality problems.

Pillar 7: Efficiency of related services or “TPM in offices”

In a ” Total ” mindset, the TPM integrated all of the company’s support Services in the TPM approach. Indeed, their ” bad ” performance could affect production performance and an optimization work must be done as such.

Pillar 8: Safety and environment

The TPM integrates the concepts of Safety and environment In his approach.


1 – T. Nakamura (2013) – TPM National Conference

2 – T. Wireman (2004) – Total Productive Maintenance

3 – E. Kathleen, McKone, N. E. Weiss (1998) – TPM: Planned and autonomous maintenance: bridging the gap between practice and research

4 – K. Akano (2007) – Optimization TPM from the shop floor to the Boardroom

5 – F. Chen (1997)-Issues in the continuous improvement process for preventive maintenance: Observations from Honda, Nippondenso and Toyota

6 – S. Tsuchiya (1992) – Quality maintenance: Zero defects through equipment management

7- http://www.jipm.or.jp/en/company/history.html

8 – R. The testifies (2013) – Supply Chain Management

J. Buffer (2011) – The TPM guide: Total Productivie Maintenance

T. Suzuki (1994) – TPM In Process Industries

Society of manufacturing engineers-Total productive maintenance in America

N. Herrmann (2004) – Factors affecting the implementation of TPM System

P. Willmott, D. McCarthy (2001)-TPM, A route to World-Class performance

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