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Above all, the evaluation of the implementation of the TQM is carried out with respect to a well-known and long-standing reference frame.


The implementation of a Quality Management System is primarily based on compliance with one or more standards. The choice of this one depends on the country, the expectations of the customers or the sector of activity.

To confront a repository

A first method to implement the TQM is to perform an assessment of the situation to know where we are and build the vision. Different repositories have been proposed to help companies in this assessment. These repositories exhaustively scan the areas to be explored to implement the total quality.

Le prix Deming

Created in 1951, the Deming Prize is the “first” prize rewarding actions related to quality. Created in Japan and promotes by the Japanese Union of Scientist and Engineers, he is referring around the world.

Other quality awards

Quality awards are brought together globally by the GEM (Global Excellence Model Council), who wants to be the guardian of quality excellence models. Representatives of major models meet regularly for sharing and alignment of different standards.

Malcolm Balbrige Award

Business Excellence Award

European Quality Award

Prêmio nacional da Qualidade

Singapore Quality Award

Business Excellence Award

Japan Quality Award


National Institutes Standards and Technology

SAI Global

European Foundation for Quality Management

Fundacao Nacional de Qualidade

Spring Singapore

Confederation of Indian Industrie

Japan Quality Award Council

Date created








Sector of application








Geographic sector

North America







In France, organizations promoting quality have emerged from the 1950s. The AFNOR (French Association of NORmalisation) was created in 1926 and was interested in quality from the 1970s. which represents France within the ISO (International Standard Organization) created in 1947 with the aim of facilitating exchanges between countries and developing international standards. In 1988 was created the EFQM which is its equivalent at the European level.

The contributions of a certification

An American study1 investigated whether Baldrige firms were better than others. Of the 14 listed companies and winners from 1988 to 1995, this study shows that the average growth of these companies is 4 times higher than the others..

The Juran trilogy

In line with the state of mind of the PDCA wheel, Juran proposes a trilogy2 for the implementation of the TQM. This trilogy is synthesized in the graph below :

The diagram represents the abscissa time and the ordinate the cost of non quality. This representation of the improvement follows the logic of the control cards In the phase of quality control, the objective is to distinguish the chronic losses from the exceptional losses, allowing afterwards to remove the causes of the exceptional losses and to control and reduce the causes of chronic loss. The final challenge is to reduce non-quality.

1 – Plan the quality

As a first step, the management plans the TQM project. This planning allows to set up the TQM project. We find the following steps :

  1. Establish the quality objectives
  2. Identify who the customers are 
  3. Determine customer needs 
  4. Develop products / services that meet customer needs 
  5. Develop processes to obtain these products / services
  6. Set up the control plan. Give the means to the operational

2 – Control the quality

We begin by making the inventory of the situation vis-à-vis the elements that we defined in the previous step.

  1. Evaluate the current performance 
  2. Compare current performance with quality objectives 
  3. Analyze and conclude on the differences 

3 – Improve quality

Last stage of the Trilogy, improve the level of quality. Depending on the expectations and the state of play, projects will be set up to improve the overall quality level. Juran defines the following 6 steps :

  1. Prove the need to improve 
  2. Establish vision 
  3. Identify improvement projects
  4. Set up the teams
  5. Provide teams with resources, training and motivation to diagnose causes and identify solutions. 
  6. Put in place the means of control to maintain the gains.

The tools of the TQM

The implementation of the TQM requires the implementation of many tools to solve problems and improve quality. We distinguish 2 large families of tools that we detail below.

Of course, as part of a quality problem solving process, the set of tools & nbsp; Lean and 6 Sigma can be used( Design Of Experiment Poka YokéControl chart …).

The first 7 tools of quality

The JUSE (Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers) will make the first systematic broadcast in 1977, 7 tools “ all public” selected for the simplicity of their use. These tools have been called the “7M” :

1 – Select a project

2 – Identify the causes

3 – Analyze the causes

4 – Implement solutions and validate

5 – Put under control

The 7 new tools of quality

These are more complex tools used in the fields of engineering, logistics, metrology, statistics, planning and method services, etc. These tools were often created at the beginning of the last century. Most of them are in Joseph Juran’s book (1951) « Quality Control Handbook », a guide to concepts, tools and approaches to improving quality.

Developed in a logic of problem solving, we find the following schema:

1 – Define the problem and find the causes

2 – Search solutions

3 – Choose the solutions

4 – Plan and track projects


1 – T. M. Krueger, M. A. Wrolstad (1997) – Is it a good investment strategy to invest in Baldrige award winners ?

2 – J. M. Juran (1998) – Juran’s Quality Handbook

J. P. Hubérac (2003) – Guide des méthodes de la qualité

D. Boéri (2003) – Maîtriser la qualité 

K. Hosotani (2010) – The QC problem solving approach

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