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Skill required for an agent of change, he must know the main tools of the PM Box.


According to the PMI, Project Management Institute (the international association that defines good project management practices and delivers the PMBox), one project is “An effort to create a single project or service” . Clearly, it’s a series of actions that has a beginning and an end and aims to meet a customer’s need.

Project and Risk 

Understandably, the notion of risk is fundamental in a project. A risk is always the following way.

An “cause” that if it occurs would then cause an “ event  that would have the or the following consequences…

We’ll use a FMECA to define the level of this risk and the necessary attention.

1 – Define the mission and objectives

At first, we will develop the project charter. It makes it possible to define the subject, to know the main milestones (date of audit, delivery to the customer …) and to know clearly our perimeter of work.

 A project wins at its beginning

2 – Structuring the project

The bigger the project, the more complex it will be to plan it. It is necessary to cut it into smaller projects. 

Descartes, in his discourse of the method indicated as second principle: ” The second, to divide each of the difficulties that I would examine, in as many parcels as it is could, and would be required to better solve them. For that, we will use the Work Breakdown Structure.

3 – Identify and sequence tasks

We will begin to go into detail and build the table of tasks. We will identify all the tasks, their duration, the antecedents…

Task N°


Previous step


Always start with the end

In order not to forget tasks, or to forget about them, it is advisable to start the identification of the tasks by the end of the project to reassemble it.

4 – Identify the« Gate »

Ce concept, dénommé “Stage Gate Process“, a été développé dans les années 1970. Il repose sur la notion de :

  • « stage » : un ensemble de tâches multi-fonctionnelles.
  • « gate » : une phase décisive définissant les input et output des « stage » et permettant le Go/Kill.


Pour chacun des projets (résolution de problèmes, nouveau produit…), on doit définir des « Gates » adaptés au besoin.

Par exemple, le processus DMAIC repose sur le passage de 5 « Gate ». Chacune ayant une série de tâches, constituant les “stage” qui doivent être validés avant de passer à la suite.

Autre exemple, ci-dessous, un modèle de Stage Gate Process pour la conception d’un nouveau produit :







Definition of the idea

Second assessment

Decision to develop

Product / customer test

Launch decision


Marketing evaluation

Technical evaluation

Financial evaluation

Action Plan for step 2

Customer need

Competitive analysis

Technical feasibility

Operations evaluation

Product definition

Financial analysis

Technical development


Test produced internally

Process of fabrication

Launch planning

Customer test

Acquisition of equipment

Sales test

Finalization of the launch

Market launch



Sales management


5 – Build the logical network

With the description of the tasks, we will build the PERT diagram, who will give us an image of the project and will define the critical path

6 – Make estimates

We will build the diagram of GANTT, which allows us to plan our project. In this sense, it will take into account all the resources we have available and see if our project is in line with them.

Some principles for a good estimate
As the project progresses, the more our estimates will be accurate.

An estimate is always done with several people.

An estimate is always accompanied by a level of trust.

Use the principles of Critical  Chain Management.

7 – Balancing the project

At this stage we have processed a whole range of data and we have a good vision of the progress of our project. Most of the time, the project manager realizes a number of “incompatibility» :

  • Unable delay
  • Deliverables not clear
  • Inadequate competence

He will have to show them to his client and negotiate with him to balance the project.

8 – Pilot

He “remains” more than piloting the project. Using the PDCA  of project management, we will carry out all the actions.

Pilot VS Manage

Pilot: “Monitor the status of the project to update progress and manage changes to the baseline schedule.”

The term “pilot” indicates that the project manager anticipates the project and its progress. Where to manage, the project manager undergoes what happens.

A good team meeting

Before the meeting 

Update schedule : Be careful, a task is only done if the client has accepted it.

Identify the impacts of advances / late.

Check if the critical path is impacted. 

Send the team member the schedule for the meeting.

After the meeting

Communicate the new plan.

List the expected deliverables for the next meeting.

Communicate with the customer about the status of the project.

Always start at the end

In order not to forget tasks, or to forget about them, it is advisable to start the identification of the tasks by the end of the project to reassemble it.

What to do in case of delay ?

If the task is not on the critical path : Check the estimates and see if our margin will be able to absorb the delay.

If the task is on the critical path :  Check the estimates, see if we can reduce the requirement level, reschedule by asking for a delay, increase resources (overtime …).

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