Setting up dedicated resources and means are key success factors in deploying a Lean approach. This will result in the creation of a new service and a steering committee of the approach.
It is noted that :
- For a large company, we consider about 1 Lean Practitioner for 100 people. Then, with development (6 months to 1 year), Lean Practitioner are engaged. Beyond 5 Lean Practitioner, we will be able to set up lean Leader which will have the function of driving more complex projects and supervise the lean Practitioner.
- For an SME: At startup, generally the lean Expert is the production manager who also serves as lean Leader and lean Practitioner. Then during development, a Lean Expert directly attached to the site manager is engaged…
The service consists of resources (technicians, engineers…) in charge of deploying the Lean program. We can also talk about Lean Promotion service in the sense that the main issue of this service is to make staff autonomous in the actions of continuous improvement1. It will be during step 3 of the deployment plan that the service Serra created with dedicated resources. Its mission is to:
- Set up the Lean program defined with the management and the Steering Committee.
- Deploy the Training Plan In agreement with the Human resources department.
- Steer the Lean projects on the Gemba.
- Ensure respect for the mindset of Lean and the proper use of tools.
The skill levels of the standard NFX 06-091
The NFX 06-091 standard defines 2 levels of complexity of lean workshops, thus 2 levels of skills of the staff of the Lean team (which can be related for example to lean Practitioner and lean Leader)2.
Depending on these 2 levels, the standard defines 5 levels of knowledge of Lean tools:
- Level 0 : no knowledge required.
- Level 1 : basic knowledge acquired only during simple training.
- Level 2 : Standard know-how by having put into practice at minima on a case study but is not autonomous.
- Level 3 : Autonomous know-how by having practiced the tool in the Gemba.
- Level 4 : Advanced know-how capable of transmitting knowledge and accompanying other people.
- Level 5 : Expertise.
|Tools||Simple Workshop||Simple Workshop||Complex Workshop||Complex Workshop|
|Identification of Causes||3||3||4||4|
|Green/Red or AV no AV||3||3||4||4|
|Calculation TRS, TRG…||3||1||4||2|
|Calculating the efficiency of the cycle||1||1||4||3|
|Workflow Analysis or standard work||3||3||4||4|
|Job capacity card or Position workstation capacity Position||3||1||4||2|
|Jidoka, Poka Yoké||3||3||4||4|
|Visual Management, 5S||4||4||4||4|
|Pull and pushed flow|
|Activity based costing (ABC) analysis||1||1||2||2|
|EAP cell, APU||1||1||3||1|
|Heijunka Box – Pacemaker||1||1||3||1|
|batch building box||1||1||3||2|
THE Sponsor Mandates the pilot and carries the results of the project. Chosen when validating the deployment plan, its role is to help the team members achieve the goals, give the caps and lift the barriers. It must be careful not to question the decisions of the participants of the Gemba And not to neglect the difficulties of the group.
It is preferably a person of the management committee of the company that is directly impacted by the project (it is therefore one of the internal clients): industrial Director, Purchasing… and it participates at minima at the launch and the close of the project.
Directly interested in the results of the project (it is with the sponsor, one of the internal clients), the Pilot Is there to frame it. This is the head of the project area (responsible for the line…). He must have a good command of the existing and a vision of the future to help and support the team.
The Sensei is a Japanese term meaning ” the teacher “, and designates a master in the subject he teaches. Generally external to the company and highly respected, it brings technical assistance and advice to business managers and acts only by asking questions. His contribution is nevertheless centered on the attitude, the state of mind, the behavior and the transformation of culture.
” all the stories of meeting with a Sensei have a common aspect: he is agitated when he is in a meeting room, he listens very little to what he has been prepared for, he asks questions all the time and he seldom responds to those he is asked… ” 3
The Lean Steering Committee
Lean is an approach to putting in place a dynamic of change. Uncomfortable Situation by definition, support and additional leadership becomes necessary. In this, a steering committee can be created, and its role will be 4 :
- Follow the progress on the Gemba of the different projects.
- Validate the deployment plan with the Lean Expert.
- Make the decisions for the implementation of the Lean program.
- Identify the drivers and the necessary human resources.
- Disseminate and communicate around the whole business process.
- Lift the barriers.
RACI matrix of roles in a Lean approach
1 – J. Black (2008) – Lean production : Implementing a World Class System
2 – M. Graban, J. E. Swartz (2012) – Healthcare Kaizen
3 – M. P. Ignace, C. Ignace, R. Medina, A. Contal (2012) – The practice of Lean management in it
4 – Aract: Steering Committee, composition, role and missions