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This pillar will consist in putting in place a continuous process of small improvement projects targeted at “human” areas where we will deploy various tools.


This pillar also translates into continuous improvement, in other words Kaizen. It will consist in putting in place a continuous process of small projects of improvements targeted on perimeters “humans” where one will deploy various tools.

It relies on logic PDCA that we represent in this form :

1 – Define the scope of work

First step, define the scope of work. For this, we will rely on the data of matrices C and D of the pillar cost deployment as well as matrix QA et QM, the study of EWO and HERCA / TWTTP.

Apart from the priorities related to the equipment called pilot and decided as such by the management committee, we will prioritize equipment AA, then A, then B and finally C, classified thus thanks at the ICE evaluation.

In the case where we are just capacity or under-capacity, we can prioritize projects on bottleneck processes.

2 – Identify losses and causes

2-1 Identification of losses

Once the perimeter is chosen, we will conduct a “hunting at Muda”. This hunt is slightly different in the sense that the losses sought are the 18 losses identified in the cost deployment pillar :

Loss type





Any kind of breakdowns directly allocated to the equipment.

Breakdown of the drive motor.


Time taken to adjust the equipment.

Series change requires 2hr adjustment.

Tooling replacements

Expected replacement of tools for maintenance or adjustment.

Preventive maintenance requiring the replacement of clamps all 10000 pieces produced

Startup loss

Time taken to restart a device after a failure or a series change.

We usually need 5hrs to go up again after the format adjustments.


Stop less than 5 minutes often difficult to measure.

From time to time, the machine that puts the plug “wedge”. It takes 10 seconds to remove the cap and restart.

Loss of pace

Difference between the theoretical cadence and the actual cadence generated by various causes…

From time to time, the control camera ejects a product that is a priori defective and generates a loss ½ points OEE.

Quality defect

Product quality issue requiring a shutdown for adjustment.

We have a printing problem and we had to clean the nozzles to get back to the desired quality level.

Lack of charge

The schedule could not be respected generating a stop from a surplus stock of finished products or a break of raw material.

We produced “faster “ than the schedule we generated a break in raw material stocks.

Waiting for start-up decision

We expect a decision from the management or a support service to know if we start production or not.

A quality problem has occurred, and for the moment, it has not been decided yet to revive.



A lack of management of the line leads to various stops.

Lack of training / Absenteeism


The line is poorly designed causing many disturbing movements.

The line is designed straight and is over 20m. The operator runs all the time to do his work. We should have designed a more compact line (in U for example) generating less displacement.


Logistics is struggling to keep up and causing line delays.

The internal order takes a little time and the storekeeper has not yet delivered the parts online.

Organization of the line

Losses are due to the operator running or waiting for other positions.

Position 1 is faster than position 2. He therefore waits from time to time for station 2 to lock the work in progress.


Surplus control and Check due to various phenomena surplus of defects, lack of automatism, lack of confidence in processes…

A new defect has appeared and we do not know how to eradicate it for the moment. We put in place an extra person in charge of 100% control.


Loss of performance

For various reasons, there is a gap between theoretical performance and actual performance.

The raw materials received must have less active ingredients than habits because, in order for the mixture to be at the same pH, more product must be added.

Indirect loss

Loss does not directly generate a loss of productivity but generates a loss on the global.

Surplus inventory resulting in products that are outdated and must be discarded.

Template and mold

A change of mold or template is not planned.

The mold is defective causing defects.


There is not enough energy to power the equipment.

Power failure causing a shutdown.

2.2 Identification of causes

From the losses that we identified, we will investigate to find the causes. Beyond the traditional tools of Problem solving (5 why, PDCA, Pareto…), WCM relies particularly on :

  • 4M analysis  : Same as 5M Ishikawa, it is more specific for application on machines and does not study the axis “Management” that proposes the traditional 5M.
  • Processing Point Analysis : Problem solving methodology specific to the WCM, it aims to solve the most complex problems.
  • 5G : Related to the mindset of problem solving, the 5Gs are Gemba, Genbutsu, Gemjitsu, Genri and Gensoku.

3 – Plan the project

At this stage, we have clearly identified our perimeter of the problems to be treated and the causes of these. We will be able to set up the project to carry out the improvement actions.

With regard to the cause identified, we know or have a good view of the tool that we will put in place to eradicate the problem. So, depending on the tool, we can define a schedule of realization that we will put in correspondence with the data of the matrix E of the pillar Deployment of Costs.

4 – Set up the project

Now that we know when we need to start the project and when we have to finish it, we will set up the project by selecting the necessary project team. We will rely on the same precepts as the Lean 6 Sigma projects (multidisciplinary team, field staff, about 5 people…).

5 – Set up and follow actions

With regard to the planning and the actions to be implemented, we will proceed with the actions (Do of PDCA). We will rely on a PDCA file to follow them and make sure we are on time.

We can then use the whole range of possible tools to solve the problems :

6 – Analyze costs and benefits

Identical to the step Check of PDCA, we will make sure that the actions are effective and that the problem is eradicated.

In the WCM philosophy, we will focus on accurately measuring project gains and cost.

7 – Sustain actions and deploy horizontally

Corresponding to step Act of PDCA, the actions implemented through Audits will be perpetuated in the same way, Visual ManagementStandardization, one point lesson…

We will also make sure to deploy on the other products, lines … good practices learned during the project (principle of Yokoten).


F.D. Felice, A. Petrillo, S. Monfreda (2013) – Improving Operations Performance with World Class Manufacturing Technique: A Case in Automotive Industry

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