Taylorism, a production management methodology from the beginning of the twentieth Century !
Kaizen, a Japanese method created in the years 50!
The 6 Sigma, a statistical tool developed in the years 80!
The Lean, invented by Americans in the years 90!
So many confirmed statements on which we will not return. But in reality we are heirs of men and women who throughout our history have wanted to transgress short minds and easy thoughts to optimize the creation of value.
Improving quality and performance is actually a human way of thinking enshrined in the life of the company. History shows that at all times we wanted to make our tool and working methods more efficient.
The roll out of history
The first “optimization” Traces of production, we find them about 400 years before J-C. Xenophon, an Athenian general and philosopher then leaned on the production to the chain to improve the manufacture of Cothurnes (shoes for the Greek Army). He advocated dividing the work so that each worker carried out only one operation, and always the same.
LEAN VS Taylorism
Still now, people of experiences or young school outings or not yet consider that Lean is taylorism under another name. To be sure, a marketing team has worked the product “Taylor” to put it under a different name, but it will better sell.
However, they are fundamentally different:
- Lean is a permanent challenge, a real reflection on oneself, and teamwork.
- Taylorism is centered on the excessive standardization imposed by “those who know” to “those who do“.
Thus, even if one of the tools of Lean is standardization, the solutions identified are not the same and not accepted in the same way. So no, Lean is not “forcing people to do it all the time”.
- Taiichi Ohno: Probably the father of the just in time, deployed these methods within Toyota. He acknowledged that the Ford system had contradictions and shortcomings, particularly with respect to employees. Ford’s harsh attitudes and degrading employment structures were impracticable in the post-war period in Japan.
- Shigeo Shingo: The father of SMED and Poka Yoké, was a major player in the evolution of methods. He worked at Taipei Railway Company or Mitsubishi. Shingo, at the suggestion of Ohno, also worked on the problem of configuration and change of series. By reducing the problems associated with the change of series and configuration, it allows to produce in small batches while keeping the principles of the continuous flow. It introduces a flexibility that Henry Ford didn’t think he needed.
- William Edwards Deming: American mathematician and statistician, during the Second World War, helped American weapons companies to produce more. But his gratitude will come from this accompanying work with the Japanese as a result of the war. Through mathematical work, he was able to provide solutions in management systems and developed the principle of SDCA/PDCA.
- Walter Andrew Shewhart: in the same way as Deming, Shewhart is an American statistician. He worked in particular for Bell Telephone on statistical quality control. He is known to have created the control charts.
- Kaoru Ishikawa : A Japanese chemical engineer, he is the father of the causes effects matrix of the same name. He was a major player in the management and improvement of quality.
- Armand Vallin Feigenbaum: American Statistician, he developed the concept of the QCT (Total Quality Control). This concept emphasizes quality management not only at the level of manufacturing but also at the level of all processes.
- Joseph Moser Juran: Romanian electrical engineer emigrated to the United States. Working in particular for Bell Telephone, he was one of the fathers of quality management. He is recognized for broadcasting the law of Pareto and have created the ABC tool.
- Genichi Taguchi: A Japanese statistician engineer, he developed the methodology of the Design Of Experiments, democratized it to make it usable by all and developed the principles of robust design.
- Bob Galvin: General manager of Motorola in the years 80, he was on the initiative of the successful implementation of 6 Sigma methods.
It is obvious that in the coming Times new methods and currents of thought can germinate and take Shape always for the same purpose: to do better than before. Lean is probably just a step towards the pursuit of excellence.
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