In recent decades there has been more and more study of psychosocial risks at work. A survey of 2004 shows that 28 of the European employees report their health affected by stress1. Recurrent studies (Sumer 2013, Insee 2011…) also show the impact of different stressful elements on the onset of disease in particular cardiovascular2.
The different models
These different surveys highlight the impact of psychosocial risks. To evaluate them, it has developed a whole range of tools that focus on a source of stress at work. The literature has been enriched as a multitude of models each with the challenge of reducing the complexity of risk analysis.
The oldest models, and for the most popular moment, are the models of Karasek and Siegrist. Student factors like the reward or the level of freedom we have at work, they have been developed from the years 70 and are very used.
Since these models, others have emerged to broaden the evaluation of psychosocial factors, most of which have emerged from the years 2000. We find factors like:
- Organizational Justice: organizational justice and its corollary injustice is a subjective assessment of what is just an element that is imposed by the company. There are three types of Justice3 : distributive justice which is our sense of being treated fairly, procedural justice that is our feeling that the process is fair, and finally interactional justice on aspects of social relations between the collaborators.
- Leadership quality: the concept focuses on managerial behaviours in terms of integrity (honesty, sincerity…), motivation (enthusiasm, mobilizer…), integration (communicating…), autocratisme (authoritarianism, elitism…) And finally self-centring (selfishness…).
- Violence: we talk about both physical violence and psychological violence. According to Heinz Leymann, one of the precursors on this subject, psychological violence at work can be defined by ” the sequence, over a long period of time, of hostile words and actions, expressed or manifested by one or more persons towards a Third Person “4.
- Insecurity : In a world that is going faster and faster, the tcompany needs constantly adapt through organizational changes that lead them to put in place restructuring plans. This translates into employees by a feeling of insecurity linked to their perception of the future5.
- The precariousness of employment: It is a theme related to insecurity. In industrialized countries, more and more people are employed via so-called ” precarious ” contracts (CDD, Interim…). These contracts expose the employees to more risk of unemployment, many disadvantages to the CDI6…
- Working time: the concept appeared in Japan in the years 1970 with the phenomena of Karoshi7 (death or permanent inability by excess of work) and Karojijatsu (suicide by excess of work)8. The literature shows us thresholds between 45 and 50hr per week. It is also to distinguish the practice of atypical schedule, the excess of work and the work posted.
The implementation of a Lean 6 Sigma approach allows to step up to certain risks by the establishment of a Gemba Management, the permanent reduction of the painfulness of the work and the quality of the environment: work and clear responsibility, Staff autonomy, team recognition…
1 – P. Paoli, D. Merllie (2000) – Third European survey on working conditions.
2 – D. Chouanière, M. Francois, N. Guillemy, V. Langevin (2003) – Stress at work. The knowledge point on…
3 – J. Greenberg, R. Cropanzano (2001) – Advances in organizational justice
4 – H. Leymann (1996) – Mobbing: Persecution at work
5 – M. Sverke, J. Hellgren, K. Naswall (2002) – No Security: A meta analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences
6 – Mr. Virtanen, Mr. Kivimaki, I. Ferrie, M. Elovainio, T. Honkonen (2008) – Temporary employment and antidepressant medication: a register linkage study
7 – K. Iwasaki, M. Takahashi, A. Nakata (2006) – Health problems due to long working hours in Japan: working hours, workers ‘ compensation (karoshi), and preventive measures
8 – T. Amagasa, T. Nakayama, Y. Takahashi (2005) – Karojisatsu in Japan: Characteristics of 22 cases of work-related suicide