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The LUBA method is a technique for evaluating postural stresses on the upper part of the body.


The LUBA method, Loading on the upper body Assessment, is a technique for evaluating postural stresses on the upper part of the body. This method assigns a score of discomfort to each of the upper body joints: the wrist, the elbow, the shoulder, the neck, and the lower back. The score increases as the posture of the articulation becomes constraining. The scores are different depending on whether the worker is sitting or standing. The method is used to calculate a global index of postural load and provides four categories of action (risk levels).


Step 1

The first step is to film the work that you want to evaluate. It is important to film several cycles, as the postures may be slightly different cycles after cycles.

Step 2

We select the postures that we will evaluate. This choice can be made:

  • Either on the posture that is held the longest on the work cycle.
  • which the person identifies as the most restrictive.

Step 3

A ” discomfort Score ” is identified for each posture articulation you wish to evaluate according to the table below.

Step 4

Once each joint is evaluated, each of the discomfort scores is calculated to identify the Posture Constraint index.

Posture Stress index = wrist + elbow + shoulder + neck + back

We will take the score of the wrist/elbow/shoulder/right OR left arm.

Step 5

The Posture Constraint index is to be interpreted according to the following table:

Category 1

This posture is acceptable, the person can perform it more than 10 minutes without special concern, except in special conditions as repeated or maintained over a very long period. There are no improvement actions to be planned.

Category 2

This category of posture can be maintained between 5 and 10 minutes. It requires some investigations and improvements as well as regular monitoring of the situation. However no immediate action is to be taken.

Category 3

This posture can be maintained between 2 and 5 minutes. Corrective actions are necessary as soon as possible as a redesign of the workspace, operations.

Category 4

This posture can be maintained at best 2 minutes. Immediate actions are however necessary.


D. KEE, W. KARWOWSKI (2001) – LUBA: An assessment technique for postural loading on the upper body based on joint motion discomfort and maximum holding time

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