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The MAXER method is a method for resolving French maintenance problems. It was developed in the years 1970 by a consultancy firm on behalf of Michelin.


The MAXER method is a method for resolving French maintenance problems. It was developed in the years 1970 by a consultancy firm on behalf of Michelin.

MAXER is the acronym for MAXimum sERvice. The objectives of the method are threefold:

  • Improve the effectiveness of troubleshooting reasoning to reduce diagnostic time
  • Make a detailed analysis of the situation
  • Reliability of equipment to minimize severity or reduce the likelihood of new breakdowns, identifying root causes

The 5 rules of the MAXER method

Rule 1 – background: an event that preceded a breakdown is always the cause

Rule 2 – location disparities: two identical systems used do not function in the same way. This is the raw material that being different explains the problem

Rule 3 – Time disparities: a system stops operating in automatic operation, and operates in manual operation. We must look for what is the element that explains the disparity

Rule 4 – Concomitances: an event is always present when the phenomenon is observed, often at cyclic times. Example: a toggle gives aberrant results at 11:45 every day. He’s a driver who goes to lunch that goes next and generates vibrations in the ground

Rule 5 – Simultaneity: If two phenomena occur simultaneously, there is a strong chance that there will be a common cause.

The golden rules

  • You should always check a probable cause before intervening to troubleshoot
  • In the course of diagnosis, it is only necessary to make assumptions capable of explaining the defect,
  • If a security can cause the breakdown, this is where you start the checks.

The Faultdiagram

The MAXER method relies on a graphical analysis of the problem called the Faultdiagram.

Representing the causal chain, it consists of different parts:

  • At the top, the system studied
  • On the right is the object on which the symptom or symptoms were found
  • Then from right to left, we represent the different assumptions that explain what happened, in the Shape of blocks “object/defects (possibly with a contributing factor)” we scratch the assumptions as they are eliminated
  • When all but one assumptions are eliminated, one can continue to refine the analysis to the left. The development from right to left is intended for the final Faullogram to be read with a left-to-right time axis
  • On the right and left, the different results of the failure analysis are shown in the Shape of the following text blocks:
    • Background : ask yourself the following questions: has there been any improvement, modification, replacement, transformation, shutdown, restart, overhaul, repair, adjustment, etc. or has the Cadence, speed, operator, conditions environmental conditions, etc.
    • Disparities : difference between what is not working and what works
    • Concomitances : detailing the various events associated with the problem
    • Contributing factors : these are the different elements that reveal a latent defect
    • Defect- free configurations : detail the “normal” configuration to not generate the defect and identify what is therefore in normal configuration despite the appearance of the defect. This is what makes it possible to lift the assumptions.

The 9 steps of rational troubleshooting of the “MAXER” method

In addition to an analysis of the rational causes of a problem, the method proposes to intervene on a problem according to a method in 9 steps:

  1. Inform and analyse the situation: IE collect information about the symptom and the environment during the realization. We will rely on the 4W2H (not the Why).
  2. Take the emergency decision without even knowing the cause, can we resume production by a palliative intervention
  3. Diagnose and search for the most probable cause of the failure : search for configurations without faults and simultaneous symptoms. The least probable causes are provisionally
  4. Repair: initial reset
  5. Check the result of the repair: looking for disparities and retaining only the possible causes
  6. Search for the root cause and correct it
  7. Find all the consequences
  8. Check on similar materials
  9. Write the intervention report. Save learned items in the faullogram for the enrichment of the knowledge base.
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