Maintenance supports the development of operators ‘ skills and responsibilities to support the performance and operating condition of the equipment.
In Japanese, we speak Jishu-Hozen : Jishu meaning ” autonomy ” and Hozen ” maintenance “. This is the cornerstone of TPM2activities. It is based on the principle of creating ” equipment expert ” to enable them to ” protect their equipment “1.
We move from a paradigm of ” I run the machines, maintenance maintain the state ” to ” I am the guarantor of the performance of the equipment “. 3
The objectives are4 :
- Prevent deterioration of equipment through correct operations and daily inspections.
- Take the equipment to its ideal state through restoration actions and cleanliness management.
- Establish the basic conditions necessary to keep the equipment well maintained.
- Reduce maintenance costs
- Reduce the non-quality.
- Increase the versatility and involvement of the staff.
The steps of the Automaintenance5
Step 1: Cleaning and inspection
- Perform an initial cleaning (step 1 to 3 of 5S).
- Detect the different anomalies encountered using the 5 senses: oil stains, damaged tools, abnormal odor…
- Re-level the necessary items.
Clean = Inspect = detect anomalies
Step 2: Eliminate sources of dirt and inaccessible areas
- Use the 5 Why To identify the sources of dirt systematically.
- Modify the equipment to make inspection and access to the various lubrication points, lubrication, adjustments… easier.
- Develop level 1 proficiency, as defined below by the JIPM, for operators and team leaders.
Use the PDCA process To drive the projects.
Step 3: Establish standards of cleanliness and lubrication
- Write the standards according to the elements seen in steps 1 and 2. You can use checklists for controls and lessons in 1 point for specific points.
- Respect the rules of the Visual management to build them.
Step 4: Conduct general inspections
- Train ” TPM team Leaders ” in terms of hydraulics and lubrication to better understand the equipment. At this stage, they work in pairs with the operational to carry out the inspections of the equipments.
- Develop skill level 2, as defined below by the JIPM, for operators and team leaders.
Step 5: Conduct self-inspections
- Maintain the autonomy of the operators in the inspections acquired in the previous step.
- Train staff to fill out the anomaly sheets and report them.
Step 6: Maintain earnings
- Improve the management of spare parts: delivery times, inventories and store availability.
- Improve tool Management: the most common tools are nearest to the workstation . Their cleanings and inspections are done on a periodic basis.
- Develop level 3 skill as defined below by the JIPM.
Step 7: Continue to improve
- Set up audits and performance measures of the actions carried out.
- Develop level 4 skill as defined below by the JIPM.
- Ensure that the Involvement of all is still present and that the dynamics of improving and maintaining the results are there.
- Continue to improve the system because the objectives to be pursued are:
0 accident, 0 fault, 0 fault, 0 setting or less than 10 minutes
The skills of the operators in the Automaintenance
According to the JIPM, key operators in the automaintenance must have 4 skill levels6.
Discover problems and improve equipment to prevent them:
Ability to see the abnormalities
Understand the importance of lubrication
Understand the importance of inspection and cleanliness
Understand the importance of contamination and the ability to make targeted improvements
Understand the structure and functions of the equipment:
Understand what to look for when you have to control the machine
Clean and inspect to maintain equipment performance
Understand the criteria for judging abnormalities
Understand the relationship between specific causes and abnormalities
Know for sure when there is a need to stop the equipment
Have notions in breakdown analysis
Understanding the causes machines inducing non-quality:
Analyze the problem and physically find the cause-effect relationship
Understand the relationship between the quality criterion and the machine
Understand tolerances and know how to measure it accurately
Understanding the cause of the defect
To be efficient in the repair of machines:
Being able to replace parts
Understanding the life span of parts
Being able to deduce the causes of failures
It should be noted that the standard Afnor FD X 60-000 specifies only 2 levels in self-maintenance:
- Level 1: Simple adjustments, simple controls and inspections, exchange of consumables/accessories and safe cleaning operation without special tools. The operator, adjuster… will rely on standards of self-maintenance to operate.
- Level 2: Standard exchange of consumables, lubrication, cleaning requiring a tooling, a dismantling of protection and a clearance. The line adjuster/leader will rely on clear and detailed maintenance instructions.
1 – K. Shirose (1996)-TPM-Total Productive Maintenance: New implementation Program in Fabrication and assembly Industries
2 – M. Komatsu (1999)-What is Autonomous Maintenance.
3 – T.R. Pomorski (2004) – Total Productive Maintenance: Conception and Literature review
4 – T. Suzuki (1994)-TPM in Process Industries
5-K. Yamazaki (1996) – TPM For every operator-JIPM
6 – JIPM (1997) – Autonomous Maintenance for operators
JIPM (2014) – TPM Award, application outline
J. Buffer (2012) – The TPM guide