RACI is the acronym for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted,Informed. Created in the years 1960 in the framework of initiative quality1. Presented as a 2-input matrix, this project management tool allows you to communicate simply and visually on:
- Who are the people in charge of driving actions: Responsible.
- Who is the only decision maker: Accountable.
- Who to consult for advice and assistance: Consulted.
- Who should be informed about the progress and evolution of the project?
It makes it possible to remember nobody, to avoid redundancies and to avoid communication problems in the WHO does what.
The tool is presented as a matrix with the various actions to be carried out and in column the staff involved in the project.
- Identify all the stages of the project and put them online.
- Identify all the actors in the project in column.
- Complete the cells with the letters RACI for each of the steps according to the definitions described below.
- Check the table with the tips below.
- Have the project sponsor check the table.
- Communicate the table to the team.
The R ‘s are the ones who carry out the shares and which relate to their respective Accountable. There is at least one R per action and this can be the same as the Accountable.
To him that the R (s ) must be accountable for the progress of their actions. The Accountable is in theory unique per action and it is the guarantor of the good progress of the action and the associated consequences. By definition, the R can only close its action if the A authorizes it.
A may also be Responsible for carrying out the action in this case, we will write in the box: A/R.
The C ‘s are people who need to be consulted for their expertise, their knowledge… They have no direct responsibilities because it is up to the A to take into account or not their opinions. In some cases it is possible that there is no C.
I are only people who need to be informed about the progress of the project. They have no responsibility in this but generally are people impacted indirectly by the project.
Perform a vertical reading and check if:
- Each person has at least one letter and if it corresponds to his or her degree of involvement and skill.
- There is a lot of white box, maybe the role is not necessary.
- On the other hand, there is no white box, maybe the role deserves to be doubled because the person has too many responsibilities.
Perform a horizontal reading and check whether:
- Each action has one and only one A. In the event that there are several, we must detail the responsibility of each one.
- Preferably, it is better to limit the number of R per share to 1 or 2 to avoid redundancies, expectations… If this is not possible, it is necessary to detail the action and cut it into sub-action to clarify the points.
- Limit the number of C per action. The more there are, the more work it has and the more complex the task may be with many divergent opinions.
- A large number of I demonstrate a diffuse and poorly framed activity.
The term S for Support is added to indicate what resources are allocated to the R to perform the actions.
- Check : The one who checks the quality of the action according to the acceptance criteria.
- Signatory : The one who approves the audit decision.
O, Omitted, refers to persons who are not part of the project. This is especially used in cases where a person is directly involved in the results of the project but does not have to participate.
1 – R. R. Moeller (2008) – Sarbanes-Oxley Internal controls: Effective auditing with A S5, CobiT and ITIL
2-Baker, Dean (2009)- Multi-Company Project Management: Maximizing Business results Through Strategic Collaboration
3- Blokdijk, Gerard (2008)- SLA Book, templates for service level Management and service level Agreement forms
4- Dickstein, Dennis (2008)- No apologies: A Business Process Approach to Managing operational Risk
J. M. Jacka, P. J. Keller (2005) – Business process mapping: Improving customer satisfaction
D. Loshin (2009) – Master Data management
W. Lareau (2011) – Office Kaizen 2: Harnessing leadership, organizations, people and tools for Office excellence