In a project that leads to a large change or impact on many people, it is important to maintain good relations with those with a ” certain ” influence. To do this, at the beginning of the project, the facilitator of the change must analyze ” the Gemba ” and conduct a stakeholder analysis.
1-Identify the stakeholders
The stakeholders are persons who have rights or interests directly or indirectly related to a project. They can help so much or, conversely, harm the project’s smooth running. With the project group, they must be identified by using the following questions:
- Who is affected by the project results?
- Who will be impacted by this one?
- Who will be involved in the project?
Some of the examples of stakeholders:
|Internal||Intermediate (both internal and external)||External|
The stakeholders are prioritized by placing them on a 2-dimensional matrix:
- Interest: The interest of the stakeholder is conditioned by the outcome of the project. Clearly, the outcome of the project impacts positively (it removes a profit) or negative (losing its benefits) this stakeholder.
- Power or influence: This axis reflects the level of positive or negative influence that the stakeholder may have on the smooth running of the project.
This matrix highlights the 4 categories of stakeholders, for which we will have to adapt our actions:
- Collaborating: These are the people who will have to get the commitment in the project. For this, we will provide the maximum effort to satisfy them and keep them involved.
- Satisfy: Not directly impacted by the project but likely to hinder it, they must be kept informed and recognize their point of view. Possibly study how to mitigate their impact.
- Involve: You have to keep them informed about the project, and talk about them in order to get them to participate wisely. This type of person can help us with the details of the project.
- Ccontrol: simply monitor them and have a global information strategy.
3-Understanding the stakeholders
Once you know who the stakeholders are, you have to get to know them to understand what they need and better meet their expectations and motivations. For this, we find 3 methods:
- Surveys : adapted when there are many stakeholders, this consists of a simple telephone enquiry or mail. It will be used primarily for the “to control ” category.
- The focus group: in a group of the same kind of stakeholders, we will bring them together to share and understand the need. It will be used for the ” satisfy ” and ” inform ” categories.
- Individual Interviews: The use of this tool for the ” collaborate ” category will be rebooked.
The key questions to be answered are:
- Why are these people involved?
- What do they need from the project team?
- What are the financial interests on the project results? Are they positive or negative?
- What motivates them the most?
- What is their likelihood of defending the project or attacking it?
- That they are their links with other stakeholders?
- What are their means of influence?
- How does the project team need them?
- What information do they expect from the team?
- What are the best ways to communicate with them?
- What is the frequency of information?
- What are their views on the current work? Do they have the right information?
- What influences their opinions? And who influences their opinions on you?
- If their opinion is not currently positive, what could change them?
- That can be influenced by their opinions
4-Write the stakeholder report
Once the data collection is collected, we still have to write a synthetic report as a table:
|Stakeholder Group||Classification||Main interest||Communication channels||Frequency|