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Centered on the heart of the problem, this method applies very well in companies that already have a well structured and deployed approach.


The 9D method is a method mainly developed in the automotive sector and particularly in Peugeot. Derived from traditional methods PDCA, DMAIC or even 8D, it has the interest of focusing on the search for causes.

The principle

The method is based on 3 main phases: The description of the problem, the determination of the causes and the search/implementation of the solutions. With this method, we focus on the search for the causes and the background.

The method

Describe the problem


Present and situate the anomaly

With the help of illustration and samples representing the defect, the problem can be accurately described.


Observe and describe the present unsatisfactory situation

With all the data collected, we will cross and search for the information to find history on this one, and the exact facts that took place: who found the problem, at what time…


Describe the situation

A clear comparison will be made showing the gap between the current situation and the ideal situation. We will give the only indicator to show that the problem has been solved.


Formulating the problem

From the previous data, we can formulate the problem. This wording must be precise and understandable by all.

Determine causes


Search and classify causes

Using the 5 Why, from an analysis 5M, a FTA or even a PM Analysis, we will determine in groups all possible causes to the problem.

They are grouped by level of importance or probability via a Pareto or ABC method.


Select causes

The selection can be made by several means:

  1. The ” obvious ” causes will first be eliminated.
  2. Then we can make a traditional design of experiment to find out if a cause is causing the problem.

Finally, if the cause is not yet known, a plan of experiments for screening will be carried out.


Check the causes

Through the previous study, we were able to determine one or more causes that caused the problem. This can be verified by testing and comparing the data before/after via a hypothesis test, most often a student test.

Propose and apply the solutions


Find and propose solutions

Now we have the cause, it remains to find a solution to eradicate it and make sure that the problem does not reappear. We can use Creative Tools to promote this research and use decision support tools to choose the best alternative (PUGH, AHP, Kepner Tregoe…).


Apply solutions and take stock

Finally, the final step of the approach will be to apply the solutions found and ensure that they meet the objective described in step 3.


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